Complaints about university courses in Wales and England were at the highest level on record last year, with some reporting technology issues during online exams.

The Office of the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education (OIA) received 2,763 complaints from students in 2021, an increase of 6 percent on 2020 levels.

In a new report, the OIA said “some students found that they weren’t getting the learning experiences that they reasonably expected” and that they had been affected by the “cumulative impact of the pandemic and industrial action”.

It also found that some students had struggled with technology, “especially in online timed exams”, with some finding it difficult to make the technology work at all, while for others poor typing skills had affected their performance.

The overall financial compensation awarded to students in 2021 was £1,304,379, “significantly higher than in previous years”.

The OIA said this was partly because the impact of the pandemic made it difficult to come up with practical solutions to complaints.

The highest single amount of financial compensation was just over £68,000, while 63 students received compensation of more than £5,000.

The proportion of complaints that related partly to the pandemic had risen since 2020, accounting for 37% of complaints received, compared with 12% in 2020.

Across Welsh and English universities, 45% of complaints in 2021 related to “service issues” such as teaching or course delivery, while 29% related to academic appeals, a slight fall from 33% in 2020.

In total, 27% of complaints were seen as “justified”.

In one instance, students in the second year of a practical arts MA complained about their programme and how it had been advertised, as their practical modules were suspended during the pandemic.

The OIA recommended that the students be refunded 50% of the course fees and offered a further £6,250 for the inconvenience they had suffered.


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In another case, a student who was seriously injured during their course was not given information about the Disabled Students’ Allowance by their university.

They were not fully supported throughout their studies, gaining a 2.2 for their degree.

They argued that they would have achieved a 2.1 with DSA support, as they were close to the 2.1 borderline. The OIA called on the university to reconsider their degree class and they were finally awarded a 2.1.

The top three study areas where complaints were received were business and management, subjects relating to medicine, and arts courses.

The OIA said this was due to the high numbers of business and management students across Wales and England, while those studying creative and more practical subjects had seen their courses particularly affected by the pandemic.

Students also “complained about lack of access to laboratories, cancelled or changed projects, placements and study abroad opportunities”.

PhD and postgraduate students were over-represented in complaints, with 45% of complaints coming from these students despite them making up 27% of the overall Welsh and English student populations.

The OIA said this could be because of the “substantial personal and financial investment” made by postgraduate students in their courses, leading to increased pressure on them to succeed.

Independent adjudicator Felicity Mitchell said: “2021 was another year dominated by the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.

“Many students experienced disruption to their lives and to their studies, and providers worked hard to deliver learning and support whilst balancing complex considerations and risks.”

She added that the OIA had both received and closed more complaints than before and that she hoped the work had been helpful to students and universities in “these very challenging times”.

Minister for Higher and Further Education Michelle Donelan said: “I have been very clear that students deserve quality, transparency and value.

"Where students believe they are not receiving the high-quality experience they were expecting they have every right to raise a complaint with the Office of the Independent Adjudicator if they are not happy with the response from their university.

“Students deserve a fair deal and it is good to see this process working with compensation pay outs increasing to over £1.3 million and more complaints upheld than ever before."

Back in February, The National reported on industrial action at Swansea University, where staff went on strike over a planned 35 percent cut to their pensions, along with falling pay, increasing "casualisation" - in which staff are given temporary, part-time or zero-hours contracts - and workload stress.

In March, Welsh uni students took part in a walk-out both to support the strikes and to protest over planned UK Government changes to its student loan system, which would require graduates to start repayments sooner and keep paying into their sixties.

Additional reporting: Rebecca Wilks

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